This week Fujitsu began shipping computing units for a 10-Petaflop “K” Supercomputer based on SPARC 64 VIIIfx processors. Jointly developed with RIKEN, an independent research institution funded by the Japanese government, the system is being delivered to RIKEN’s Kobe-based computational science research facility and is expected to begin operations in autumn 2012.
The K supercomputer will comprise more than 800 computer racks housing a total of 80,000 SPARC 64 VIIIfx processors developed by Fujitsu. With a peak performance of 128 gigaflops, the SPARC 64 VIIIfx produces 2.2 gigaflops per watt, a reduction of power consumption by 2/3 compared to previous generations of the chip.
To provide high bisection bandwidth and fault tolerance, the interconnect for the 640,000-core system will be the “world’s first six-dimensional mesh-torus topology” developed by Fujitsu. Water cooling will reportedly enable high-density packaging along with improved component life and reduced failure rates.
This is going to be one massive installation. If any of our readers know how many Megawatts this baby is going to burn, please let us know in the comments.
- Fujitsu Aims for 10PF Super
- C-Dac Reaching for a Petaflop by 2012
- Fujitsu and Sun Enhance SPARC M3000 Server
|(1)||Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Division, National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India|
Received: 4 August 2009 Revised: 17 April 2010 Accepted: 6 May 2010 Published online: 27 June 2010
Keywords Jatropha curcas - Chloroplast - Genome - Phylogeny - Pyrosequencing - Euphorbiaceae - Angiosperms
Natural allelic variation underlying a major fitness trade-off in Arabidopsis thaliana
Marco Todesco,Sureshkumar Balasubramanian,Tina T. Hu,M. Brian Traw,Matthew Horton,Petra Epple,Christine Kuhns,Sridevi Sureshkumar,Christopher Schwartz,Christa Lanz,Roosa A. E. Laitinen,Yu Huang,Joanne Chory,Volker Lipka,Justin O. Borevitz,Jeffery L. Dangl,Joy Bergelson,Magnus Nordborg& Detlef WeigelJournal name:Nature Volume:465,Pages:632–636 Date published:(03 June 2010) DOI: doi:10.1038/nature09083 Received10 July 2009 Accepted 14 April 2010
Plants can defend themselves against a wide array of enemies, from microbes to large animals, yet there is great variability in the effectiveness of such defences, both within and between species. Some of this variation can be explained by conflicting pressures from pathogens with different modes of attack1. A second explanation comes from an evolutionary ‘tug of war’, in which pathogens adapt to evade detection, until the plant has evolved new recognition capabilities for pathogen invasion2, 3, 4, 5. If selection is, however, sufficiently strong, susceptible hosts should remain rare. That this is not the case is best explained by costs incurred from constitutive defences in a pest-free environment6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Using a combination of forward genetics and genome-wide association analyses, we demonstrate that allelic diversity at a single locus, ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 6 (ACD6)12, 13, underpins marked pleiotropic differences in both vegetative growth and resistance to microbial infection and herbivory among natural Arabidopsis thaliana strains. A hyperactive ACD6 allele, compared to the reference allele, strongly enhances resistance to a broad range of pathogens from different phyla, but at the same time slows the production of new leaves and greatly reduces the biomass of mature leaves. This allele segregates at intermediate frequency both throughout the worldwide range of A. thaliana and within local populations, consistent with this allele providing substantial fitness benefits despite its marked impact on growth.
Publication Date: 2010 May 27 PMID: 20508152
Authors: Zhang, F. – Maeder, M. L. – Unger-Wallace, E. – Hoshaw, J. P. – Reyon, D. – Christian, M. – Li, X. – Pierick, C. J. – Dobbs, D. – Peterson, T. – Joung, J. K. – Voytas, D. F.
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Publication Date: 2010 May 27 PMID: 20508151
Authors: Osakabe, K. – Osakabe, Y. – Toki, S.
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
An Environment-Wide Association Study (EWAS) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
1 Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, 2 Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, 3 Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto, California, United States of America, 4 Center For Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and other chronic diseases are caused by a complex combination of many genetic and environmental factors. Few methods are available to comprehensively associate specific physical environmental factors with disease. We conducted a pilot Environmental-Wide Association Study (EWAS), in which epidemiological data are comprehensively and systematically interpreted in a manner analogous to a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS).
Methods and Findings
We performed multiple cross-sectional analyses associating 266 unique environmental factors with clinical status for T2D defined by fasting blood sugar (FBG) concentration ≥126 mg/dL. We utilized available Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts from years 1999 to 2006. Within cohort sample numbers ranged from 503 to 3,318. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and an estimate of socioeconomic status (SES). As in GWAS, multiple comparisons were controlled and significant findings were validated with other cohorts. We discovered significant associations for the pesticide-derivative heptachlor epoxide (adjusted OR in three combined cohorts of 1.7 for a 1 SD change in exposure amount; p<0.001), and the vitamin γ-tocopherol (adjusted OR 1.5; p<0.001). Higher concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as PCB170 (adjusted OR 2.2; p<0.001) were also found. Protective factors associated with T2D included β-carotenes (adjusted OR 0.6; p<0.001).
Conclusions and Significance
Despite difficulty in ascertaining causality, the potential for novel factors of large effect associated with T2D justify the use of EWAS to create hypotheses regarding the broad contribution of the environment to disease. Even in this study based on prior collected epidemiological measures, environmental factors can be found with effect sizes comparable to the best loci yet found by GWAS.
Publication Date: 2010 May 6 PMID: 20487382
Authors: Ammiraju, J. S. – Fan, C. – Yu, Y. – Song, X. – Cranston, K. A. – Pontaroli, A. C. – Lu, F. – Sanyal, A. – Jiang, N. – Rambo, T. – Currie, J. – Collura, K. – Talag, J. – Bennetzen, J. L. – Chen, M. – Jackson, S. – Wing, R. A.
Journal: Plant J
Planta. 2010 May 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Production and identification of wheat-Agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines.
National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NKCRI), Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.
The narrow genetic background of wheat is the primary factor that has restricted the improvement of crop yield in recent years. The kernel number per spike is the most important factor of the many potential characteristics that determine wheat yield. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, has the characteristics of superior numbers of florets and kernels per spike, which are controlled by chromosome 6P. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and substitution lines were used as bridge materials to produce wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines induced by gametocidal chromosomes and irradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that the frequency of translocation induced by gametocidal chromosomes was 5.08%, which was higher than the frequency of irradiated hybrids (2.78%) and irradiated pollen (2.12%). The fluorescence in situ hybridization results of the translocation lines showed that A. cristatum chromosome 6P could be translocated to wheat ABD genome, and the recombination frequency was A genome > B genome > D genome. The alien A. cristatum chromosome 6P was translocated to wheat homoeologous groups 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6. We obtained abundant translocation lines that possessed whole-arm, terminal, segmental and intercalary translocations. Three 6PS-specific and four 6PL-specific markers will be useful to rapidly identify and trace the translocated fragments. The different wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines obtained in this study can provide basic materials for analyzing the alien genes carried by chromosome 6P. The translocation line WAT33-1-3 and introgression lines WAI37-2 and WAI41-1, which had significant characteristics of multikernel (high numbers of kernels per spike), could be utilized as novel germplasms for high-yield wheat breeding.
May 20, 2010
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Professor Kulvinder Gill, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Ralph Cavalieri, director, WSU Agricultural Research center
NSF, Gates Foundation to Support WSU Research on Developing ‘Desert Wheat’
PULLMAN, Wash. – Washington State University researchers working on developing wheat varieties that grow under severe drought conditions — “desert wheat” — have earned a $1.6 million grant from the National Science Foundation and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.Part of the two foundations’ BREAD program, the grant will help fund WSU scientist Kulvinder Gill’s research on identifying genes that will increase wheat yields under drought stress. BREAD stands for Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development; it is a five-year program aimed at generating sustainable, science-based solutions to agricultural problems in developing countries. More than 130 U.S. institutions in 45 states, partnering with counterparts in 68 countries, submitted proposals for the inaugural BREAD competition.
“It is an honor for WSU to be a part of this prestigious, international effort to help feed the world,” said Dan Bernardo, dean of the WSU College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences. “The potential for truly changing the circumstances of people around the globe is real and powerful.”
Ralph Cavalieri, director of WSU’s Agricultural Research Center, said the award speaks to the quality of the university’s plant sciences research.
“This award is national recognition of WSU’s strength in wheat genetics and breeding,” he said. “It will have positive impacts globally and for U.S. wheat producers.”
Gill, who holds the Vogel Chair for Wheat Breeding and Genetics at WSU, will lead a team of researchers at WSU, Purdue University, the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, the Punjab Agricultural University in India, COMSATS University in Pakistan, and Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. The team will focus on developing alternate gene systems to reduce plant height in wheat and other cereals. Currently used dwarfing genes that helped double wheat and rice production during the “Green Revolution” of the 1960s limit yields under drought and other environmental stress conditions, especially in wheat. Approximately 50 percent of the world’s wheat is grown in arid climates.
“Successful completion of our project will help maximize the benefits of the dwarfing trait without the adverse effects under drought conditions that are usually associated with the currently used mutants. The project is particularly important for the U.S. where 85 percent of the wheat is grown under limited water conditions,” said Gill.
A complete list of 2010 BREAD awards is available at http://www.nsf.gov/bio/pubs/awards/bread10.htm.